1. Quality definition:
1.1 ISO 9000 – degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
1.2 Philip B Crosby – conformance to requirements.
1.3 Joseph M Juran – Fitness for use.
*Requirements may not fully represent customer expectations.
*Fitness is defined by the customer.
2. Quality vs Grade
Quality is the ability to meet certain inherent requirements.
Grade is the rank of a characteristic of an object. A low grade object/product might still meet the requirement.
3. Non-proprietary methods of Quality
3.1 Total Quality Management (TQM) – aims to limit errors to one per one million units.
Deming Cycle – Plan->Do->Check->Act->Plan->Do->Check->…….continuous improvement
3.2 Six Sigma (Voice of the customer (VoC) ) – focuses on improving the quality by reducing the number of defects.
3.3 Joseph Juran – 80/20 principle of Vilfredo Pareto
3.4 Philip Crosby – Do It Right the First Time (DRIFT principle) or prevention over inspection
4. 80/20 principle of Vilfredo Pareto – 80% of the effects come from the 20% of the causes.
5. Pareto Analysis is a technique to identify the important causes (the 20%) when many possible causes are competing for attention.
6. Cost-Benefit Analysis – This technique is used to weigh the benefits vs the cost of meeting the quality requirements. The purpose is to find the point of diminishing return.
7. Cost of Quality (CoQ) is total cost of the quality over the life of the deliverable.
7.1 Cost of Conformance – The money spent during the project to avoid failures.
Prevention Cost – the cost to build quality product
Appraisal Cost – the cost to run testing, inspections, etc.
7.2 Cost of Non-Conformance – The money spent during and after the project because of the failures.
* The objective is to find the balance between conformance and non-conformance costs.
8. Ishikawa diagram or Fishbone diagram or Cause and Effect diagram
9. Control Chart indicates whether the process is in control or out of control.
USL – Upper Specification Limit
LSL – Lower Specification Limit
UCL – Upper Control Limit
LCL – Lower Control Limit
It a measurement goes out of UCL and LCL range, the process is considered out of control. Some corrective measures are taken.
Rule of Seven – Seven consecutive measurements on one side of the mean shift the mean and the process is considered out of control.
10. Statistical Sampling – The method of choosing a sample population of the object/product for testing.
11. Force Field Analysis – The technique used to analyze the forces for and against a change.
12. Nominal Group technique – a group process involving problem identification, solution generation and decision making. Quick decision by vote where everyone’s opinion is taken.
13. Precision and accuracy are not the same.
Precision is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results.
Accuracy is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity’s actual (true) value.
14. Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC) – The diagram of a plan.
15. Matrix diagrams – rows and columns to show relationship between factors, causes, objectives, etc.
16. Quality Control (QC) is to verify deliverables. It is reactive in nature.
Verify Scope is to verify compliance to requirements.
17. Standard Deviation = (tP – tO)/6
+/- 1 Sigma = 68.26%
+/- 2 Sigma = 95.46%
+/- 3 Sigma = 99.73%
+/- 6 Sigma = 99.99%
1. Staffing Management Plan includes the procedure to acquire team members, timetable, allocation of work, release criteria, training requirements, reward procedures, safety requirements, and compliance requirements.
2. The Roles and Responsibility Matrix
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) using RACI
Responsible – person responsible for performing the work.
Accountable – person accountable for the work.
Consulted – person is consulted while performing the work.
Informed – person needs to be informed about the work.
A variation of RACI is RASCI:
Support – person provides support in performing the work.
3. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis is a tool like Weighted criteria matrix, used for team selection.
4. The greatest influence factor on a project success is conflict and the greatest influence factor on conflicts is the team. Second to conflicts in influencing a project success is Goal changes. Changes in scope, deliverables, schedule, etc.
5. Five stages of team development:
Forming – team members meet, learn about the project, roles and responsibilities, ground rules are established.
Storming – team members openly collaborate, different ideas are shared.
Norming – come together as a team after Storming.
Performing – established good understanding, perform efficiently as a team.
Adjourning – the team moves on.
6. Clearly define project roles and make sure the project goals and members’ personal goals coincide.
7. “Follow the Sun” method of development.
8. Six general techniques for conflict resolution.
8.1 Confronting/Problem Solving (win-win method) – Treating conflict as a problem to be solved by examining alternatives.
8.2 Compromising/Reconciling (lose-lose method) – A solution that brings some degree of satisfaction to all parties involved. All parties lose something in the bargain.
8.3 Forcing/Direct (win-lose method) – Supporting one view point at the expense of the other.
8.4 Smoothing/Accommodating – Emphasizes the areas of agreement rather than the areas of differences.
8.5 Withdrawal/Avoiding – Retreating from an actual or potential conflict. “cooling off” period.
8.6 Collaboration – Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from different perceptions. Leads to consensus and commitment, may not offer a resolution to conflict.
9. Leadership styles:
9.1 Autocratic – making decisions without input.
9.2 Directing – telling others what to do, giving orders.
9.3 Consultative – getting the inputs from others.
9.4 Consensus – through problem solving and group involvement decision making techniques.
9.5 Facilitating – coordinating the inputs from others, enabling their activities.
9.6 Coaching – Instructing and encouraging others.
9.7 Supporting – providing assistance, advice, guidance as needed.
10. Motivational Theories:
10.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need theory
The needs at the bottom of the pyramid must be met before the next higher level can be focused on.
Top of the pyramid
Self-Actualization: morality, creativity, spontaneity, acceptance, experience, purpose, meaning, internal potential.
Esteem: confidence, achievement, respect of others, need to be a unique individual.
Social: friendship, family, intimacy, sense of connection.
Safety: health, employment, property, family and social stability.
Physiological: breathing, food, water, shelter, clothing, sleep.
Bottom of the pyramid
10.2 Herzberg’s Motivation theory (Two-factor theory)
Hygiene – These factors may de-motivate in their absence. A clean, well run job environment with good management will not necessarily motivate the employees but the absence of it might de-motivate them.
Motivators – Positive satisfaction arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself such as recognition, achievement or personal growth.
10.3 McGregor’s theory X and theory Y
Theory X – assumes that the people are inherently lazy, don’t like to work and will avoid it if they can.
Theory Y – assumes that the people are ambitious, self-motivated and exercise self-control.
10.4 Ouchi’s theory Z – focuses on increasing employee loyalty by providing job for life with strong focus on the well-being of the employees both on and off the job. I promotes stable employment, high productivity, high moral and satisfaction.
10.5 Vroom’s Expectancy theory – proposes that a person will decide to act or behave in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they think the result of that selected behavior would be.
1. A project manager spends 80-90% of its time communicating.
2. Total communication channels between N number of people = (N*(N-1))/2
3. Basic communication model
3.3 Encode – the process of composing the message.
3.4 Decode – the process of understanding the message.
3.5 Medium – the vehicle by which the message is transported.
3.6 Noise – interference to the message while being transported via the medium.
4. The sender is responsible for, and accountable for, knowing that the receiver received and understood the message sent, as intended.
5. Communication Methods
5.1 Interactive – multi-directional change of information.
5.2 Push – sent to specific recipients who need to know the information.
5.3 Pull – used for very large volume of information where the recipient has the discretion on when to acquire the information.